The Trojan War

The Trojan War is a legendary event, an essential element of ancient Greek culture.

It gave rise to many artistic works, particularly literary works. Part of it is told in Homer’s Iliad; the poem bears this name because the Greek name of the city of Troy is Ilion: it is the first epic written in Greek and has a foundational value.

Trojan War

Photo by Toa Heftiba on Unsplash

The War

The Trojan War starts after the kidnapping of Helen, wife of the King of Sparta, Menelaus, by the Trojan Paris.

In fact, Aphrodite had promised Helen, in gratitude for the judgment of Mount Ida, to grant her the golden apple.

The Greek kings, descendants of Pelopus, met then. United by Tyndarus’ oath, they decided to make war against Troy with a very big contingent.

After gathering other heroes like Achilles, they form a fleet that in the second year after Helen’s abduction, docks in Mysia, not far from Eleaea.

First they face Telepho, king of Mysia and son of Herakles, who, alarmed by the landing of such a large army, sent his own troops against him.

After a fierce struggle, Telephe learns the identity of the leaders of the enemy army, and the battle ceases.

The Greek fleet returns home after this first expedition, and rests for eight years.

Ten years after the kidnapping of Helen, the Greeks launch a second expedition which, thanks to the advice of Telefeo, lands on the coast off Troy.

After the first battles with the Trojans, the Achaeans begin the siege of Troy.

In order to weaken the city, and to obtain supplies, they launch raids on neighboring cities.

An embassy led by Menelaus and Odysseus claims from Priam, King of Troy, the return of Helen, without success.

Apollo

In the tenth year of the siege, and on the occasion of one of the raids, Chrysalis, daughter of a priest of Apollo, was captured and awarded as an action of honor to Agamemnon, commander in chief of the Greeks.

Angry, Apollo attacks the Greek camp with a plague, and Agamemnon is forced to return his captive.

In return, he assumes the authority that had fallen upon Achilles as a quota of honor. Furious, Achilles withdraws to his tent and asks his mother, Thetis, to make Zeus favor the Trojans.

Despite the exploits of heroes like Diomedes and Ajax the Great, the Greeks are losing their balance.

Patrocle, Achilles’ companion, obtains Achilles’ permission to carry his weapons in order to galvanize the troops.

Dressed like this, he launches a vast assault on the city, but is defeated by Hector, Priam’s eldest son. Crazy with pain, Achilles takes up arms again and kills Hector. Also he defeats Priam’s new allies: Pentelesia, queen of the Amazons, and Memnon, Ethiopian prince.

Then Ulysses had the idea of the Trojan horse: Greek warriors hidden in a big wooden horse, disguised as an offering to Poseidon.

The Greek fleet pretends to retire, leaving the horse on the beach. As a sign of victory, the Trojans bring the trap to their walls.

Believing that the war is over, they feast and rejoice. When night comes, the Greek warriors get off their horses and open the gates.

Troy is looted, members of the royal family are killed or taken into slavery, and Menelaus can finally bring Helen back to Sparta, twenty years after her abduction. During the battle, Achilles is wounded in the heel by an arrow shot by Paris and dies.

History of the war

The discovery in 1870 by archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann of the ruins of Troy on Hissarlik Hill in Turkey rekindled an old debate about the historicity of the events recounted by Homer.

Today, archaeologists believe that the Trojan War took place, but for economic reasons. Homer turned this rather banal war into an epic.

The ancient authors place the war two generations before the arrival of the Dorians in Greece, that is, according to the duration of one generation, between 1334 and 1135 B.C.

Eratosthenes sets the most frequently accepted date as 1184 BC. Two levels indicating destruction correspond to this period.

Level VIIa seems to bear the marks of human destruction. Its dating is based on the study of the ceramics found there.

However, it can be estimated that at the end of the 13th century B.C., or even at the beginning of the 12th century B.C., a time when the Mycenaean palace system practically no longer exists.

Under these conditions, it is difficult to imagine a concerted operation by the Mycenaean warlords.

The second possible level is the VIh, which dates back to around 1250 BC, and which witnesses a brilliant period, especially from the architectural point of view.

The destruction of Troy at that time was due to an earthquake and was followed by a change in urban planning with the disappearance of the mega-tree and therefore, it seems, also of the ruling power.

This natural disaster could be at the origin of the legend of the wooden horse that would have been an offering to Poseidon, the god of earthquakes, which would have allowed the destruction of a city so far impregnable.

Editor’s Note

The strategy games, will help you to understand the thoughts of exploration of the world, these Games of the conquest of the world you can get them in Ubisoft, Tencent, Supercell, Activison Blizzard, Xbox one. These strategy games are also for PC.

Also in the appsGoogle Play or App Store, one of the very popular are the mini-conquers of Clash Royale or Clash of Clans, Risk, a game to conquer the world, Age of Empires, Age of Sparta, March of Empires, Dugeon Hunter 5, Anno 1800, Warcraft III, Civilization IV, Total War Rome II.

With these conquering role plays, you will be able to understand what a Trojan warrior had in mind.

In addition, if you are not into games you can look for great promotions in digital books or medium use books of the Iliad in the online stores of Amazon, WalMart, Costco, Sams Club, Chedraui, Carrefour, aliexpress, alibaba or MercadoLibre.

These books are gems of literature that can keep your mind busy dreaming of the great adventures of these explorers or conquerors of the world.

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