What is the UN?
UN is the acronym by which the Organization of the United Nations is known as a general level.
It is the most important international entity of today, made up of governments from all over the world that seek to join efforts to achieve good results in terms of peace, security, economic and social progress, humanitarian issues and human rights.
The United Nations was officially born on October 24, 1945, after the majority of the 51 Member States signatories of the founding document of the Organization, the UN Charter, ratified it.
At present, 193 States are members of the United Nations, which are represented in the deliberative body, the General Assembly.
The United Nations can take action on the problems facing humanity in the 21st century, such as peace and security, climate change, sustainable development, human rights, disarmament, terrorism, humanitarian and health emergencies, gender equality, governance, food production and much more.
The UN, as it appears when reviewing its history, was established once the Second World War ended, through the signing of a document known as the Charter of the United Nations.
The foundation was completed on October 24, 1945, in the city of San Francisco (California), with the participation of 51 nations with the aim of promoting world peace.
All the countries that are part of this organization affirm that they share the desire to resolve conflicts throughout the world through dialogue, in order to avoid such disastrous consequences as the Second World War, although unfortunately, these purposes are far from being carried out. cape.
The letter of the United Nations states that all countries that accept their obligations (according to what the rest of the nations expect from them) and respect the authority of the UN and the decisions there can be part of this organization. be taken in favor of world peace.
The fundamental objectives of the UN are: to preserve future generations of all warlike conflicts, to reaffirm the bases of the basic rights of living beings, to plan the ways in which justice and respect between nations throughout the world are made reality and promote the progress of all countries without distinction, raising the quality of life of the most disadvantaged.
In the UN there are six official languages, these are: English, Spanish, French, Chinese, Arabic, and Russian.
The headquarters of the UN is located in New York but also has facilities in Geneva. There, the member states and other related agencies decide and provide advice on various topics that are discussed in the regular meetings held throughout the year.
Within the United Nations Organization there are six bodies, where each one is responsible for representing one of the basic activities of every society (economy, environment, society, etc.), they are: the General Assembly, the Secretariat and the Councils of Security, of Fiduciary Administration, of International Justice and the Economic and Social one.
Each of them is governed by a program and has funds for the development of the activities that concern them, which come from the payment that each Member State makes about the quotas established by the agency.
Currently, the UN has 193 member states. There are countries where entry into the body is still under discussion, as in the case of the Republic of China-Taiwan.
The Vatican City (in this regard, it must be said that the Holy See is considered an observer) and Palestine (the Organization for the Liberation of Palestine is also valued in this framework as an observer member) are some of the nations that they are not part of the UN.
Finally, it is worth mentioning that in some countries the “United Nations Model” is carried out each year among college students and universities.
It consists of a simulation where young people learn to debate and present their ideas in front of a group. The students are divided into groups and each one represents a country; they should investigate that place, their customs, ideas and make proposals to improve their relations with the rest of the countries.
During the conference, dialogue and negotiation take place in the UN committee, represented by a General Secretary and a mediating group.
It is an opportunity where young people can learn about other cultures and identify with the situation in a specific country; He can also enrich his oratorical art and lavish an unforgettable knowledge about international relations.
Each of the 193 Member States of the United Nations is a member of the General Assembly. States are admitted as Members of the United Nations by a decision of the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council.
The main organs of the UN are the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Trusteeship Council, the International Court of Justice and the UN Secretariat. All of them were created in 1945 when the UN was founded.
The General Assembly is the representative, normative and deliberative body of the UN, and the only one that has universal representation when its 193 Member States are represented. They meet every year, in September, during the annual session, which takes place in the General Assembly Hall in New York. During its first days, there is a general debate in which numerous Heads of State participate and speak.
The Security Council has the primary responsibility, as stipulated in the Charter of the United Nations, for maintaining international peace and security. It has 15 Members (5 permanent and 10 non-permanent). Each one has a vote, although the five permanent ones have the power of veto.
Subsidiary bodies of the Security Council
Economic and Social Council
The Economic and Social Council is responsible for dealing with economic, social and environmental issues, by reviewing the policies that are adapted, their coordination and the creation of recommendations. It also ensures compliance with internationally agreed development goals.
In addition, it serves as a central mechanism for the activities of the UN system and its specialized agencies in economic, social and environmental fields, as it supervises the subsidiary and expert bodies.
Board of Trusteeship
The Trusteeship Council was established in 1945 and its mission, according to Chapter XIII of the Charter of the United Nations, was to supervise the 11 Trust Territories, under the administration of 7 Member States, and to ensure that it prepared them for autonomy and independence. In 1994, all the Trust Territories had obtained autonomy and independence, so that the Trusteeship Council suspended its operations on November 1 of that year.
International Court of Justice
The International Court of Justice is the main judicial organ of the United Nations. Its headquarters are in the Peace Palace in The Hague (The Netherlands). It is the only one of the six main organs of the Organization that is not in New York.
Its function is to resolve, in accordance with international law, the legal disputes presented to it by the different States and to issue advisory opinions on the legal issues that the authorized bodies and the special agencies raise.
The Secretary is headed by the Secretary-General and is made up of tens of thousands of international staff members, who work in different stations of destination all over the world, carrying out daily work stipulated by the General Assembly and the other main bodies. The Secretary-General is the Chief Administrative Officer of the Organization.
UN staff is recruited internationally and locally and works in duty stations and peace missions around the world. But serving the cause of peace in a violent world is a dangerous occupation.
Funds, Programs, Agencies
The United Nations system consists of the Organization itself and numerous affiliated organizations known as programs, funds and specialized agencies. Each of them has its own membership, leadership, and budget. Thus, for example, programs and funds are financed through voluntary contributions, while specialized agencies, which are independent international organizations, do so with obligatory fees and voluntary contributions.
Programs and Funds
The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) is present in some 170 countries and territories, where it works to eradicate poverty, reduce inequalities and promote resilience so that countries maintain the progress achieved. UNDP plays a key role in helping countries achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.
The United Nations Children’s Fund provides humanitarian aid and long-term development for children and mothers.
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees provides protection to refugees around the world and facilitates their return to their homes or their resettlement.
The World Food Program aims to eradicate hunger and malnutrition. It is the largest humanitarian agency in the world. Each year, it feeds almost 80 million people in some 75 countries.
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime helps member states in their fight against drugs, crime, and terrorism.
The United Nations Population Fund is the leading United Nations agency to offer a world in which every pregnancy is desired; each birth, insurance, and the potential of each young person, developed.
The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development is the United Nations body responsible for resolving development issues, in particular, international trade – the main reason for development.
The United Nations Environment Program, founded in 1972, is the voice of the environment. UNEP acts as a catalyst, advocate, and facilitator of the rational use of the global environment and its sustainable development.
The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East has contributed to the well-being and human development of four generations of Palestinian refugees.
It provides an important range of services, including educational services, basic health care, relief and social services, infrastructure and microfinance, in order to improve the living conditions of Palestinian refugees and help them meet their basic needs. emergency assistance, even in times of armed conflict. It only submits reports to the UN General Assembly.
UN Women focuses exclusively on gender equality and the empowerment of women.
The United Nations Program for Settlements (UN-Habitat) has the mandate to promote socially and environmentally sustainable towns and cities with the objective of providing adequate housing for all.
Specialized agencies of the UN
Specialized agencies are autonomous organizations that work within the United Nations. All maintain links with the UN through negotiated agreements.
Some of them existed before the First World War, others were associated with the League of Nations or were created almost at the same time as the UN, while others were created by the UN in order to respond to new needs.
The World Bank focuses on reducing poverty and improving living standards through the provision of low-interest loans, interest-free loans, and grants for education, health, infrastructure and communication to developing countries, among others. The World Bank works in more than 100 countries.
The International Monetary Fund promotes economic growth and employment, for which it provides both temporary financial assistance to countries, which helps balance the balance of payments, and technical assistance. The IMF currently has 28 billion dollars in outstanding loans in 74 nations.
The World Health Organization is the directive and coordinating authority on matters of international health in the United Nations system. The goal of WHO is to achieve the highest possible level of health for all. Health, as defined in the WHO Constitution, “is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or disease.”
Is responsible for global vaccination campaigns, responding to public health emergencies, defending against the flu pandemic and leading the way in eradication campaigns against deadly diseases such as polio or malaria.
Last year, WHO eliminated bird flu in Vietnam, deleted two countries from the list of nations where polio is endemic and provided humanitarian assistance in Lebanon and Darfur.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization goes from teacher training in order to help them improve global education to the protection of key places both historically and culturally throughout the world. UNESCO added this year, 26 new World Heritage Sites to the list of irreplaceable treasures that will be protected from today’s travelers and future generations.
The International Labor Organization promotes international labor rights through the formulation of international standards on freedom of association, collective agreements, the abolition of forced labor and equal opportunities and treatment
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations leads international efforts in the fight against hunger. It constitutes both a forum for the negotiation of agreements between developed and developing countries as a source of information and technical knowledge to assist development.
The International Fund for Agricultural Development, since its creation in 1977, has focused solely on the reduction of rural poverty, on working with poor rural populations in developing countries in order to eliminate poverty, hunger, and malnutrition; in increasing their productivity and income and in improving their quality of life.
The International Maritime Organization has created a broad regulatory framework for maritime transport in order to address issues such as safety and the environment, legal issues, technical cooperation, safety, and efficiency.
The World Meteorological Organization facilitates the free international exchange of meteorological data and information, as well as the promotion of its use in aviation, navigation, security, and agriculture, among others.
The World Intellectual Property Organization protects intellectual property in the world through 23 international treaties.
The International Civil Aviation Organization establishes international rules on air navigation, investigation of air accidents and air border crossing procedures.
The International Telecommunications Union is the agency specializing in information and communication technologies. It is committed to the connection of all the people of the world, no matter where they live or what the means are. Thanks to their work, we protect and support the fundamental right of all people to communicate.
The United Nations Industrial Development Organization is the specialized agency that promotes industrial development and seeks to reduce poverty, inclusive globalization and the sustainability of the environment.
The Universal Postal Union is the main forum for cooperation between postal sector agencies. It helps guarantee an authentic universal network of updated products and services.
The World Tourism Organization is the agency in charge of the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism.
The Joint United Nations Program on HIV / AIDS is co-sponsored by ten agencies of the United Nations system: UNHCR, UNICEF, WFP, UNDP, UNFPA, UNODC, the ILO, UNESCO, WHO and the World Bank. It has ten objectives related to the prevention and treatment of HIV / AIDS.
The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction serves as a focal point in the United Nations system to coordinate efforts in disaster prevention and mitigation.
The United Nations Office for Project Services is an operational arm of the Organization, whose support work enables the consolidation of the peacekeeping tasks of its partners as well as humanitarian and development projects throughout the world.
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