John Adams (1735/10/30 – 1826/07/04)
John Adams Born October 30, 1735, in Braintree and died on July 4, 1826, in Quincy, Massachusetts. He was the second president of the United States considered as one of the founding fathers of the country.
He was the first American president involved in an international war, an almost naval war against France. He inaugurated Washington as his capital in 1789 and opened the White House.
John Adams had several accomplishments in his career. He made some of the most important decisions for the United States.
He always promoted the idea of a national government. When the Republicans turned to him for advice on government and its policies, he printed a pamphlet calling for his reflections on government.
I was tired of telling them the same thing over and over again. So that your thought known to everyone, you printed this booklet.
It contained several notes from all over the country of origin from various states. He also made it clear to his party that all types of societies exist in the country. People of all classes must have a government to admire.
During the 1796 presidential election, he faced fierce competition from Thomas Jefferson. However, Adams won because he had a stronger sense of national security.
He saw that France was a greater danger than Britain. He was only one of the two presidents who signed the Declaration of Independence. He was persevering and worked for the prosperity and growth of the country.
The United States’ interest in appropriating Puerto Rico and Cuba did not arise in 1898 when it declared war on Spain.
As early as 1783, John Adams proposed the annexation of both islands, according to Puerto Rican historian Arturo Meléndez López in his book “The Battle of Vieques. Four years later, another future president, Tomas Jefferson, expressed support for Spain’s continued rule of Cuba and Puerto Rico.
Jefferson was no Hispanophile; he only feared that some rival European power would invade the Spanish colonies and thus make it more difficult for the United States to conquer them.
It was clear to him that his nation’s destiny was to take away Spain’s Caribbean territories. Americans who believed in their country’s manifest destiny felt the vulnerability of its expansionist project when, in 1797, an English military expedition led by privateer Sir John Abercrombie almost succeeded in seizing Puerto Rico.
Stamp Act of 1765
John Adams became involved in politics during the Stamp Act of 1765 which was imposed by the British Parliament without consulting the colony assemblies. Previously, Parliament had enacted the Sugar Act in 1764.
In 1765, Adams wrote the instructions that were sent by the inhabitants of Baintrée to their representatives at the Massachusetts assembly, and which served as a model for other cities in giving instructions to their representatives.
In December he gave a speech to the governor and the council in which he said that the Stamp Bill was invalid because Massachusetts had no representation in Parliament, and therefore had not consented to it.
Friend and partner of George Washington. He was one of the most original Fathers of the Nation in terms of political thought. And one of the three members in charge of writing the Preamble to the Declaration of Independence.
The beginning of his political career, he was chosen as a lawyer by several British soldiers accused of the death of five settlers in the Boston massacre (1770) and successfully defended his clients justifying the use of force in defense of their lives.
In 1785 he became the first American ambassador to Great Britain, a position he held until 1788.
In the stay in London, he wrote three volumes of defense of the constitutions of government of the United States of America.
In 1772, the governor of Massachusetts, Thomas Hutchinson, announced that he and the high court judges no longer needed their salaries to be paid by the Massachusetts assembly, because the Crown would then assume payment from the proceeds of customs revenue. Boston radicals protested and asked Adams to explain his objections.
In “Novanglus or a History of the Dispute with the United States, from its Origin in 1754 to the Present Time,” Adams attacked some essays by Daniel Leonard in defense of Hutchinson’s arguments in favor of Parliament’s absolute authority over the colonies.
In 1774, the First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia to seek solutions to America’s problems with Britain. Adams was elected to attend as a representative from Massachusetts.
Not in favor of independence, he recommended a system of parliamentary equality in the United States and Great Britain with the common loyalty to the crown.
Declaration of Independence
On May 15, 1775, the Virginia Convention passed a motion with instructions to the Virginia delegation in Congress “to propose to that respectable establishment to declare the United Colonies free and independent states free from any allegiance or dependence on the Crown or Parliament of Great Britain.
As instructed, on June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee, a representative of Virginia, introduced an independence resolution to Congress. The resolution, seconded by John Adams.
After being defeated in the elections of 1788 and 1792, when Washington was elected president, he became the first vice president of the nation and was elected in 1796 to succeed Washington as president.
The Federalists of Hamilton approve the laws of Alien and Sedition Acts, which restricted the rights and privileges of the foreigners and Adams refused to approve them.
In February 1799 he appointed new commissioners to resume peace negotiations with France.
The peace initiative allowed him to dismantle the new army. However, foreign policy divided the Federalist Party on the eve of the 1800 elections.
This contributed significantly to the election of Thomas Jefferson and the Republican victory in both houses of Congress.
At the age of 65, in March 1801, John Adams returned to his home and farm in Quincy, Massachusetts, where he spent the rest of his life. He writes his autobiography. In the 1818s he lost his wife Abigail, which was a profound loss.
But life always offers revenge and he had the honor of seeing his son John Quincy Adams (1767-1848) as the sixth president of the United States (1825-1829).
But what about the rivalry with Thomas Jefferson? It should be said that it ended in 1811, when he and John Adams became friends, exchanging correspondence on many subjects.
And to close this biography of Mr. Adams, it should be mentioned that the day of his death coincided with that of Jefferson: both died on July 4, 1826, 50 years after the adoption of the Declaration of Independence.
A great book I recommend is this.
- David McCullough
- Simon & Schuster
- Edición Kindle
- Edition no. 1 (05/22/2001)