TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol): definition, translation
Definition of the word TCP/IP
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) combines the two protocols TCP and IP. It is therefore a set of protocols associated with the Internet domain for which it facilitates data transfer.
In short, the TCP/IP protocol is a communication standard between two processes.
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Determines and establishes the rules for sending and receiving data over a network. The association of the two protocols allows us to provide guarantees of reliability in data transfer.
With TCP/IP, you can be sure that the information sent will reach the right recipient.
On the operational side, the TCP/IP suite is based in part on IP addressing.
It is capable of splitting the information exchanged into packets so that IPs can accept large data, and of checking for possible data transmission errors.
Translation of the word TCP/IP
- Transmission control protocol
- The TCP/IP allows communication between two processes.
- Similarly, TCP/IP allows communication between two processes.
In addition, TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the basic communication language used by the Internet. TCP/IP is also used as a communication protocol in private networks, such as an intranet or extranet.
If you have set up direct access to the Internet, your computer contains a copy of the TCP/IP program, as do all other computers to which you can send messages or from which you obtain information.
The TCP/IP is a two-layer program.
The top layer, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), manages the division of a message or file into smaller packets, which are then transmitted over the Internet and received by another TCP layer that reassembles the packets to reconstruct the original message.
The bottom layer, the Internet Protocol (IP), manages the address of each packet to ensure that each packet reaches its destination.
Every computer on the network checks this address to see where to forward the message. Although not all packets in a message follow the same route, they are reassembled once they reach their destination.
TCP/IP uses the client/server communication model in which one user computer (a client) requests and obtains a service (such as a web page) that another computer (a server) on the network provides.
The TCP/IP communication mode is mainly point-to-point: each communication starts at one point (or at a host computer) on the network and reaches another point (another host computer).
TCP/IP and the high-level applications that use it are collectively referred to as "stateless" because each customer request is considered new and independent of any previous request, unlike ordinary phone conversations, which require a dedicated connection for the duration of the call.
This feature frees up network paths that everyone can use at all times. (Note that for a given message, the TCP layer itself is not stateless. The connection remains active until all packets of a given message are received).
Many Internet users are familiar with the top layer application protocols that use TCP/IP to access the Internet.
These protocols include Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Telnet for connecting to remote computers, and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). These and other protocols are often grouped with TCP/IP under the term "suite".
The TCP/IP is a layered model
In order to apply the TCP/IP model to any machine, i.e. regardless of the operating system, the TCP/IP protocol system has been divided into several modules, each of which performs a specific task.
In addition, these modules perform these tasks one after another in a specific order, so we have a layer system, so we talk about the layer model.
The term layer is used to refer to the fact that the data that passes through the network crosses several levels of protocols.
Thus, data (information packets) circulating on the network are processed successively by each layer, which adds an information element (called a header) and then is transmitted to the next layer.
The TCP/IP model is very similar to the OSI model (7-layer model) that was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) to standardize communications between computers.
Presentation of the OSI model
OSI stands for Open Systems Interconnection. This model was developed by ISO to establish a standard for computer-to-computer communications on a network, i.e., the rules governing communications between computers.
In fact, at the origin of the networks, each manufacturer had its own system (called proprietary system).
So many incompatible networks coexisted. That's why it was necessary to establish a standard.
The role of the OSI model is to standardize communication between machines so that different manufacturers can develop compatible products (software or hardware) (as long as they scrupulously respect the OSI model).
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